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英文寫作教學——議論文結構法

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近期編輯:frank51512 ...看更多

《前言》


這次要教的是怎麼利用結構公式寫出一篇有內容的議論文,所以雖然名義上是英文寫作教學,但是中文議論文應該也可以用同樣的結構喔~

以下教學會使用中文摻英文的方式解說。
《本文》

【整體結構】

以中學程度來說,用五個段落最為保險:

Introduction (讓讀者瞭解你主要要寫的是什麼)
Body Paragraph 1 (是用來舉例support你的主意)
Body Paragraph 2 (同上)
Body Paragraph 3 (同上)
Conclusion (當然就是總結囉)

【Introduction結構】

1.開場白
(一般是從general的東西開始。以我之前上的解析課為例,第一句就先說明哪個作者寫的哪本書是關於什麼的故事)

2.過場
(簡單來說就是從開場白牽拖到你接下來Thesis的一些句子,使整個Introduction變得合理流暢)

3.Thesis Statement
(最重要的一句話!!通常放在Introduction的最後一句。也就是關於整篇作文你到底想表達什麼的精華。比如說:我認為抽煙不好,因為對身體健康不好、浪費錢,而且妨害觀感。那麼上面所謂「對身體不好、浪費錢、妨害觀感」就會分別被分到下面三個Body Paragraph來講)

【Body Paragraph(簡稱BP)結構】

BP1、BP2、BP3都有著同樣的構造,基本上由五句組成:

1.Topic Sentence
(把之前第一段Thesis提到的要點拉下來到這句,讓讀者知道這一段主要是在講什麼。如果是要解析作者運用的寫作技巧的話,例子為:The author uses metaphor to portray his love towards his lover. 這邊的要點即為"metaphor")

2.Thesis
(雖然上面Introduction也提過Thesis,但是兩者之間的不同在於,Introduction的Thesis就是介紹論點,告訴你整篇文章要講什麼。BP的Thesis就是論點的論點,針對那一段解釋你為什麼會這麼想。)

3.Quote/Example
(針對前一句Thesis提出有效的例子或證據。像我們的解析課就會引用指定閱讀裡的句子。簡單來說就是在這一句裡放一些其他人說的話或實際數據。以我現在正在修改中的作文為例:Also, from how “he has made himself unable to hear [Aslan’s] voice” (185), Uncle Andrew proves that he never tries to accept and understand the “reality” around him.)

4.Explanation
(用來解釋你給的例子如何和你的BP和其Thesis串聯起來。其實我在上面那一項的那句例子已經有一半是解釋了。如果你剛好有很多的靈感,想多說明的話,寫好幾句是沒問題的)

5.Conclusion
(算是為這段BP做個小小的結論。我的話通常會放個所以怎樣怎樣,然後再把Topic Sentence的東西再拉下來包裝一下)

【Conclusion結構】

1.Restate thesis statement
(簡單來說就是把Introduction的Thesis Statement整句搬下來。當然不要照抄,試著換個說法保留原本的意思。可以把意見和要點分開成兩句)

2.放大
(也就是把結尾導向比較general的方向,例如讀者從這個故事中學到什麼教訓,或是未來人類應該怎麼做等等。也可以擴展成好幾句。)

《參考範本》


以下放的是我在去年四月寫的作文
當時閱讀的書是《Heart of Darkness》,題目為:
“Write an essay in which you analyze a central question the work raises and the extent to which it offers answers. Explain how the author’s treatment of this question affects your understanding of the work as a whole.”

(僅供參考,不保證沒有任何錯誤)

Kurtz and European Imperialism

        Heart of Darkness, written by Joseph Conrad, describes the experience of Marlow, who went to Africa for his dream adventure, but eventually discovered the ugly side of European imperialism. Conrad does not only make the protagonist, Marlow, as the center of the story, but also a critical man, Kurtz, who works in Africa. In the novel, Conrad raises a central question, “What does European imperialism bring to its people?” Through Marlow’s narration about people’s jealousy toward Kurtz’s talents, Kurtz’s ravages on Africa, and Kurtz’s fiancées’ belief in him, Conrad directly points to the answer: a cold and dark heart that seeks for power, but also ignores its evil side.

Firstly, European imperialism teaches its people to succeed by taking benefits from others. Therefore, Kurtz, who has high accomplishments in his company, becomes a target that his colleagues are jealous of. For example, when the general manager says, “lots of [ivory] – prime sort – lots – most annoying, from [Kurtz]” (28), he clearly shows that he does not like Kurtz. Although in front of Marlow, the manager comments that Kurtz “[is] the best agent he [has], an exceptional man, of the greatest importance to the company” (19), he is unpleasant and envies of what Kurtz owns. Indeed, under an imperialistic society, people work hard to plunder the limited chances in order to win in their life. So, the manager thinks “it [is] frightful” (28) if Kurtz takes over his position; Kurtz has become a treat for him to climb up to a higher position in the company. From it, readers can observe that European imperialism does not only endanger other countries, but also develops enemies within the country.

Furthermore, Kurtz, a representative of European imperialism, practices it by treating the natives in Africa cruelly. Imperialists always see themselves as the top of the social pyramid; they believe that the “top” should rule and extract advantages from the “bottom”. For instance, in order to get the ivory in Africa, Kurtz “raided the country” (51), ignoring the fact that it will bring destruction to the land and its people. Additionally, the natives are in awe of Kurtz’s majesty, because Kurtz acts as a king, or even god at there, who gives punishment to those who does not listen to him. As a symbol of his power, Kurtz has “heads on the stakes” (53) as a warning to the natives that they will be one of the heads if they do not cooperate. By revealing Kurtz’s cruelty, Conrad indicates the hideousness of European imperialists, and reprimands the unequal treatment to others.

Moreover, Conrad portrays Kurtz’s fiancée as a follower of imperialism, who has no doubt on believing in it. After Kurtz dies for a year, she still lives in her “dream” that Kurtz is always there, which indicates how important imperialism is in the Europeans’ mind. In addition, she has a strong fervor toward Kurtz, especially his talents and intensity; it hints the readers about her revere and loyalty to strong power. She says “his goodness [shines] in every act.” (71), and it is also how imperialism appeals to Europeans: bright and admirable. Nonetheless, the shine also leads to her blindness of realizing his cruelty and mistakes. Europeans “have been very happy – very fortunate – very proud” (70) because of their imperialism, but it directs them to only look at the positive consequences, leaving the negative side away from their sight. Thus, while contrasting Kurtz’s brutal acts in Africa and his exemplary acts in front of his fiancée, Conrad points out the possibility that one, especially the European imperialist, cannot always be ideal.

From Conrad’s detailed description about Kurtz, readers are able to relate Kurtz to European imperialism, and receive Conrad’s massage about it: European imperialism pollutes people’s heart with jealousy, encourages them to acquire without any humanitarian consideration, and shelters them from their ability to differentiate good and evil. It is why Conrad chooses “The horror! The horror!” (64) as Kurtz’s last words; the representative of imperialism finally realizes his dirty sins, feels afraid and guilty for what he has done. However, it is too late; the imperialism has dyed his heart into the color of darkness.

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